In this article we have been used methods Grounded Theory and techniques Rapid Rural Appraisal , Participatory Rural Appraisal, Semi-structured interviews, Observation, Walking in the field and Focus groups.
Researcher on rural development and indigenous knowledge and PhD in sociology and economic development of Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Tehran-IRAN, Mail:yousefi1442@Gmail.com
Profeassor of Sociology of Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad Universit. Tehran, Tehran-IRAN , Mail:AzkiA_Moatafa@yahoo.com,
. Profeassor of Sociology of Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, , Tehran-IRAN, Mail:A-Kaldi@Srbiau.ac.ir
In this article we have been used methods Grounded Theory and techniques Rapid Rural Appraisal , Participatory Rural Appraisal, Semi-structured interviews, Observation, Walking in the field and Focus groups. in this study, theoretical saturation was interviewed by 22 people. analysis of data was done through coding. in open coding, from among all the data collected from the field, was extracted 231 the concept includes the words, paragraphs and sentences, that by eliminating the frills, was obtained 67 concept. concepts, compliance with regulations governing the coding Was divided into 27 " Micro stratum " and then using the same procedure there are 16 " Extensive stratum". the axial coding classes obtained through open coding, the data were analyzed in a rational order to concepts and categories was conducted according to a paradigmatic model, traditional participatory management from the pastures were exploitation in the tribe mamasani Fars province, and changes made to the that system. as a result this research Common commodities in the area, makes optimal utilization of pastures that because of unbalanced implementation of governmental programs this system disintegrated in the past few decades,and this has been degraded pastures.
keywords :Indigenous Knowledge, Modern science, Traditional participatory management operation of the pasture, unbalanced development, Common goods
Despite the progress of new technologies in numerous fields of agriculture and ranching and supply to the population and use of these technologies in urban communities, it has not very acceptable in villages and tribal areas by the people of these regions and" in studies conducted in parts of the world it seems that knowledge has been undermined western scientists"(Chambers, 1998: 98), and existing experience reflects the fact that technologies provided to rural and tribal communities
Do not generally acceptable usage among indigenous have a high rate of rejection In these areas. Because the technology had been created outside the local area, therefore, is inevitable inefficiency of its implications. According to studies carried out in parts of the world, it seems, Be useful Indigenous Knowledge of these areas to increase efficiencies and enhance aspects of technology provided to indigenous communities. Because indigenous knowledge of technical knowledge has two advantages:
Without the cost and easily accessible and economically affordable. Is compatible with the environment There is little risk for farmers and ranchers and indigenous producers(Ahmed ,1994:13).The other hand debate today is that these two fields, that's mean indigenous knowledge belonging to villagers Modern science belonging to the academic and scientific community Together can meet development of goal in rural areas.
Indigenous Knowledge: indigenous knowledge is derived of text human societies over the years that has been transferred Orally and breast to breast from generation to generation and it has been the result of trial and error that has emerged in the natural substrate and it is rooted in context and beliefs of people. Indigenous knowledge is the local knowledge, a knowledge that is unique in creating a culture and society. This knowledge is called knowledge that is derived from Specific geographic area and is produced naturally. But Knowledge villagers be affected by geographical area Outside the village. It Knowledge is part of the national assets whatever the ethnic includes beliefs, values, methods, tools and their local knowledge and it is the same knowledge have taken Different ethnicities over the centuries his Sustenance by it. Have Procurement Their clothes, have resettled in a shelter themselves, have trained their children, have reintegrate their community, And have preserved their health and livestock(Imadi and Abbasi, 1999).
Warren knows indigenous knowledge and local knowledge that is Confined to a specific culture or a certain community. It is different indigenous knowledge with scientific knowledge that that has been created by Universities and associations Scientific and research. this knowledge is the basis for local decisions in the field of agriculture, health, food preparation and conversion, Education, Management, Natural resources and numerous other activities in rural communities(Warren,1992).
Lionberger and Gwin: indigenous Knowledge is knowledge by farmers and their experience has been learned and transmitted from one generation to another(Lionberger & Gwin,1991).
opinion of thinkers this field is about characteristics of indigenous knowledge Will follow: Grenier, attributes like cumulative and dynamic, epidemic, Suffused with culture(Grenier,1198), local, implicit and unwritten, transmitted orally, is Experimental, learned The through repetition and continuous changing(Sharif Zadeh et al.,2001:42), Holistic, is rapidly destroying and is Practical(Emadi and other, 1378), Based on experience and trial and error(Zare and other, 2002:52), Public-oriented, oo remix culture and religious beliefs, and finally that indigenous knowledge it prefers the lowest risk and the most benefit(Evelyn,1995). Knowledge of villagers is not a purely technical, is not static, it is Never enough, is rooted within Political economy and The broader context of policy( Azkla& Imani, 2008: 287-288).
Pretty,.J: Low cost for indigenous peoples, lack of employment With this knowledge at the current time, Technical solutions Partially within Scientific trend – development, doubt to be able to develop and acceptable in current situation(Pretty,.J.1994:37-48).
Brokensha: compatibility with abundant labor force and low demand for capital, dynamism, fully compatible local, acceptance of diverse production systems, the emphasis on conservation of resources and avoid from risk, Rational decision making, fexible strategies for emergencies(such as drought and famine), simple agronomic, simple intelligently agronomic and Innovative cultivation for Multi-crop cultivation, combine and full extraction productive methods with social institutions, fexibility and high performance( Papzan,2201:24-25).William and Mucena: He knows the characteristics of indigenous knowledge: integrated system of recognition of values, beliefs and practices of local and community i terms of aplaication(William and Mucena,1991).
Research Methodology: In this article, among the qualitative research methods, it's been chosen Grounded theory. This method to be handled using the systematic collection of data and development of methods in the form of deductive and basic in connection with each other. The purpose of Grounded theory is create theory that in addition to staying faithful to reality, will be defining interest area. Therefore, this method, does not have statistical generalizability inherently and Instead, it has the generalizability of concept. This method – unlike other methods – it will pull out theory from within existing phenomena in a field. therefore, it is not looking for field testing and get to the truth or falsity of the theory, but it is creator of the theory, and this is that there there are between this research approach with other methods. This method is based on comparative analysis and following the discovery theory based on four criteria the generalizability of understanding, adapt, and modify the appropriate accountability(Gladder, 1978). Grounded theory has four basic elements: concepts, stratums and categories that they are most basic unit of analysis and are created through the concept of data(Pendit,1996). Stratums are placed higher level than concepts and have density more to offer. they also, ere created through comparative analysis and they are tools that Created theory combining them(IbId). The third elements are stratums that they show the relationship between a stratum and consept and so, those separate the relationship between classes.
The process of study
Objectives and fundamental questions of study
۱-What type of cooperative institutions studied traditional Mntbqh or is there?
۲- What features and elements do these management have?
۳- How and in what structure do these elements is Causing cohesionin this management?
۴- What were the causes of the collapse of traditional collaborative management of pastures?
In fact, these questions within the research aims to explain. For the main question is central to the study.
Geographical scope of the research: "Deli Ghayed Shafie"area from tribe of Mamasani Fars – iran, is one of the areas with nomadic lifestyle that the operation of the pastures, also, it has many pastures that are used to participatory management of traditional operation of the pastures in the area. There are 7 villages in the area that Participants were selected from 6 villages. Rostam eparchy is one of the eparcheis in Fars province that is located 160 km southwest of Shiraz in the way of Shiraz- Ahvaz. Masiri city is the center of the eparchy. This eparchy is bordered from North and West to Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad province, from East to shiraz eparchy and from South to Mamassani eparchy (yousefi,2013).
Collecting and analyzing data: In order to collect data, beginning were identified some people group Get the village, and then for better implementation of Grounded theory, work was started with Rapid Rural Appraisal Approach(RRA). Therefore, after a month, planning and preparation for the implementation of the participatory approach was starteddata collection based on semi-structured questions prepared from already. data were collected through various methods and techniques such as: Focus groups, Participatory Rural Appraisal(PRA), semi-structured interviews, observation, walking in the countryside,and etc. To achieve theoretical saturation that was obtained in the twentieth held accountable, also , the held accountable were selected from other villages and was follow the interview. also, to make sure findings and theoretical sensitive, the respondents were participated in a triplex group and asked Questions and were testing their responses.
the data collected were analyzed based on principles of Grounded theory by coding through all the data collected from the field included: notes, images, videos, audio files,that were extracted 231 concept in the form of words, paragraphs and sentences, and they were set in a table that be due to increasing volume of avoided.
table No 1 Concepts , Micro stratum and Extensive stratum of data bringing them, then compare Grid together all the data together and w extracted, 65 concepts. concepts were split into 27 Micro stratum comply with regulations governing the coding. in the following was conducted the same processfor extensive stratums. In the following obtained 17 extensive stratum. in the next step took place in the axial coding. axial coding included: linking process to TheMore main issues. this complex includes inductive and deductive thinking is complex operation is done in several steps. Of course, in axial coding, use this method is more focused and been tried to be discovered issues, according to paradigmatic model. at this stage, stratums which been obtained through open coding in logical discipline was placed and it was found together their relevance. in other words, data analysis to concepts and stratum in axial coding were related to each other to a new way. this operations was carried out with to apply a paradigmatic model includes the "causal conditions", "Phenomenon", "context" and confounding conditions, "Strategies for interaction and" consequences ". Due to the high volume this article, just short of concepts and stratum have been brought in here. The next step is the selective coding, that achieved from mixing and combining fundamental classes and and be used for the formation the initial framework. This also, according to the general mentality model which is based sustainable management of pasture. In fact, at this stage, desired model will find its own form. in here, will be determined the central phenomenon. This process is described in the following.
Therefore, the trajectory of the story that shows how the process of study, leading to a central floor in fact, six of the paradigm, the formation of the story, because it is based on the premise that specific causal conditions, especially the occurrence of the phenomenon that somehow the situation is influenced by confounding and strategies for both the current situation and the ideal situation is to imagine that phenomenon. In this case, the consequences are the result of events other elements of the paradigm that shows what problems exist and how should it be organized. The field of research in terms of spatial and temporal context in which the research was conducted.
Results and discussion: After analyzing the data collected from the field, through different techniques, was clear Tthat before the land reform in the studied area, operation management of pasture, have been traditional participatory management that it was Caused by indigenous knowledge of People. in the traditional system, there are ways to prevent and restoration of pastures that named Participatory management of Traditional exploitation of pastures. Hereunder brief description will be given:
Participatory management of traditional exploitation of grassland
in mamasani tribe
Traditional participatory management exploitation modification, improvement and development of pasture through pasture sowing seeds: put one bag containing the the seeds of the neck the forefront of the flock and the placement of a hole at the bottom of the bag, with motion the flock ,the seeds of beads are poured through a hole in the ground and with the other livestock was below the ground.
Traditional participatory management exploitation modification, improvement and development of pasture through drinking Livestock: during droughts, some of ranchers ,had been sold, their livestock up between the number of livestock and water, they create balance.
Traditional participatory management exploitation modification, improvement and development of pasture through traditional fertilizer: the use of animal manure is a way to to improve pasture. In these areas, the shepherds are rotating their animals on pasture, till complete the cycle of dung through.
Traditional participatory management exploitation modification, improvement and development of pasture through ward off the pests and weeds: another way to the traditional pasture restoration, removing weeds that by turning the flock and trampled down the weeds, if the animals separate from the body stick to it and burning the plants They were destroyed.
Changes in the traditional system of exploitation of pastures: after the land reform, nationalization of pastures and forests In the 60s, as well as after the revolution 57, were fell apart participatory management of traditional exploitation of pastures. this has led to structural changes. This means that, with executing programs quasi governmental modernization, lord went out from the area, and the government took his place. Has gradually changed community structure. Social stratification suffering from been substantial changes. Some of previous stratums were destroyed , and some were changed and a new stratum in this area in the estimation of the community, and the domestic industry consuming and a quasigovernmental modernism disappeared. Based on the findings of this study, after the nationalization of pasture and land reform, the government not only failed to the vacuum caused by the presence of the master in connection with the management of pastures, fill in the area, and provide appropriate programs to prevent degradation of pastures and pastures restoration, but with their bad approach, and designs without the participation of the people, leading to destroying or weakening of traditional management rules governing the exploitation of the pastures have been. as a result of government programs can be named as reasons for pasture degradation. Therefore, the changes are briefly as follows:
In general, compared to land reform and to monitor changes, it can be concluded that:
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